Sunday, March 14, 2021

SCADA IN DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEM


 



Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) is an acronym for supervisory control and data acquisition. SCADA stands for supervisory control and data acquisition, and it is a software and hardware system that allows industrial operations to be controlled locally or remotely. It's used to keep track of, collect, and process real-time data. With SCADA, we can use a Human-Machine Interface (HMI) program to interface directly with equipment at a remote location. Remote terminal units (RTUs) and programmable logic controllers (PLCs) are at the heart of SCADA design. These are intelligent computers that interface with field devices like machinery, sensors, and HMIs, among other things.SCADA software is set up to distribute and display data acquired from field devices, allowing operators to make more informed decisions.

 SCADA is an automated control system that interfaces with process plant and machinery using data network communications, Man-Machine Interfaces, programmable logic controllers (PLC), computers with graphical user interface (GUI) programs, and proportional integral-derivative (PID) controllers. SCADA was created to provide a more flexible way of remote access to complicated automated distributed control systems' local control activities.


When you think of SCADA, you could think of a variety of gadgets and pictures. A SCADA system is made up of software as well as physical components. They are employed both locally and remotely in the supervision and management of manufacturing plants. In real time, SCADA analyses, collects, and analyzes data. Human-machine interface (HMI) software makes it easier to interact with field devices like pumps, valves, and motor sensors. The SCADA program also has the capability of logging data for historical uses. A conventional SCADA system's structural design begins with remote terminal units (RTUs) and programmable logic controllers (PLCs) (PLC). Microprocessors called RTUs and PLCs communicate and interact with field equipment like valves, pumps, and HMIs. The data is transported from the processors to the computers, where it is interpreted and displayed by software, allowing operators to study and react to system events. Plant operators had to monitor plant processes using analogue signal selector switches, push buttons, and dials before SCADA. In order to control the processes, the facility needed to keep workers on site during production. Relays and timers were employed to maintain monitoring and control of processes as manufacturing increased and sites became more remote in nature. As a result of the use of these devices, fewer plant staff were required to monitor activities on-site in order to manage control operations. While relays and timers provided some automation, the panel needed to accommodate these devices took up significant space. Troubleshooting became extremely complex, and reconfiguring the system was also a challenging effort. These challenges, combined with the necessity to build larger industrial units, have aided in the development of automation.

 

Programmable logic controllers

TYPES OF SCADA

MONOLITHIC SCADA SYSTEM - Monolithic SCADA systems were developed prior to the availability of network services. They were self-contained, self-contained systems with no methods of interconnection.
DISTRIBUTED SCADA SYSTEM - The second generation SCADA system is referred to as the distributed SCADA system. A Local Area Network distributes control duties across numerous stations (LAN). Real-time information could be shared among operational stations once the local area network is in place. The main disadvantage of a distributed SCADA system is that the network protocols are proprietary, limiting interconnection with devices from other suppliers.
NETWORKED SCADA SYSTEMS - For communication, networked SCADA systems used a Wide Area Network (WAN). Information is transmitted between stations using Ethernet or fiber optic technology. PLCs (programmable logic controllers) are also used to monitor and control activities.
SCADA SYSTEM WITH MIXED PROPRIETARY NETWORK PROTOCOLS - By incorporating internet of things (IOT) technology into cloud computing, SCADA system implementation becomes more sophisticated and adaptable.
   
HISTORY OF SCADA

In the 1950s, the necessity to manage industrial processes became a reality. The new supervisory control technologies were widely used in gas and oil facilities, as well as numerous manufacturing operations. Telemetry became popular in the 1960s, and it provided additional remote capabilities through automatic communication of data to remote monitoring locations. The term SCADA was used in the 1970s to characterize systems that employed PLCs and microprocessors to monitor and control automated processes on a bigger scale. SCADA were merely stand-alone units at the time because networking was not in place.

SCADA systems can be linked together thanks to the advantages of local area network (LAN) and human-machine interface (HMI) software in the 1980s. However, the main issue at the time was that communication was confidential. This restricts the integration of SCADA devices from different vendors. Between 1990 and 2000, open system architecture with non-vendor-specific communication protocols began to be implemented. This allows SCADA systems to communicate with devices from a variety of suppliers. As a result, SCADA is now known as a Networked SCADA system. The networked SCADA system, however, only lasted a short time.

Current SCADA systems have adopted the usage of SQL and web-based applications as computing technology has advanced, particularly in IT database systems. Today, SCADA provides for remote access to real-time plant data from anywhere on the planet. Having data at the operator's fingertips makes it easier to enhance plant operations and respond quickly to SCADA system problems based on data obtained in the field and system analysis. The operator's engagement can take place anywhere in the world, from a computer in one area to a site in another. Historical data can be logged and used in trending applications with the SQL database module to improve plant performance and improve record keeping.

SCADA APPLICATIONS

1. SCADA systems are used to monitor, control, and manage water capacities in reservoirs in water and sewage treatment plants.

2. SCADA systems are used to monitor activities in power plants, transmission substations, and distribution networks from afar.

3. SCADA is a system that is used in the transportation industry to monitor and control traffic flow.

4. SCADA is an essential component of a ship's distributed automation system, and it plays a critical role in the ship's overall power management.

5. In the telecommunications business, SCADA is commonly used to monitor the status of operation of communication equipment located at remote sites.

6. SCADA systems are used on the production line to track how many units have been created in the management of production processes.

7. SCADA is utilized in food production to increase quality control.

SCADA monitors the flow of solid and liquid materials during the food manufacturing process.


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