Sunday, April 18, 2021

HOW DOES BOILER WORK?




The term "boiler" refers to a device that heats water or produces steam. Heating systems then use hot water or steam produced by a boiler. At high temperature and pressure, the boiler produces steam or hot water. Water and heat source are needed to produce steam. The water boils under atmospheric pressure at 100 degrees Celsius. The boiling water point is directly proportional to the pressure within the heater. The three elements of a triangle of fire must be present in order to produce heat. Oxygen, ignition source and fuel are the triangles of fire. The chemical interaction that causes fire is the most crucial aspect of the fire triangle.




Radiation, convection, and conduction are the three methods by which the fire in the boiler heats the boiling water.

RADIATION - This is a heat transfer mechanism that does not require any physical contact between the heat source and the recipient. Heat is transmitted as an electromagnetic wave.

CONVECTION - This heat transfer method primarily occurs in a liquid or gaseous state. The high-temperature molecule will rise due to the heat source, whereas the low-temperature molecule will fall. As the temperature of the molecule rises, the density of the molecule falls, causing it to rise. This explains why temperature and density are inversely proportional.

CONDUCTION - Heat is transferred between two components in this technique if they make physical contact. Keeping water on a heat source is the simplest way to make steam in a boiler.

Let's have a look at how radiation, conduction, and convection are used to heat the water in the boiler. The burner's flame heats the water tank immediately. The water molecules in the tank's bottom section heat up, and their density decreases. As a result, the heated molecule rises to the top, displacing the cold molecule to the bottom. The water is heated through the process of convection in this way. Radiation heats the drum as a hot electromagnetic pulse from the burner goes forward.

The burner flame also produces hot combustion gases, which move via the smoke tube and into the furnace. These heated gases heat up the smoke tube's boundaries and then the surrounding water by conduction. By securing the boiling system with an airtight seal, we can pressurize it.

Industrial boilers are frequently constructed by welding together fixed steel plates to achieve exceptionally high pressure. To withstand the enormous pressure, it must be made extremely sturdy. Failure to do so would bring forces dangerously close to an exploding explosive. The purpose of a boiler is to produce either hot water or steam.

PARTS OF BOILER
Although boilers are built in a variety of ways. The following are the components of a conventional boiler.
The heat exchanger, I the burner, (ii) the combustion chamber, and (iii) the burner

BURNER - The burner is in charge of starting the combustion process in the boiler. A temperature sensor controls this, sending a signal to the burner when the system need more heat.
COMBUSTION CHAMBER - The combustion chamber is the area within the boiler where the fuel is ignited. Heat is normally transferred from the chamber to the heat exchanger.
HEAT EXCHANGER - The pressure boiling water or steam is then transferred through pipes to the radiators, where the heat energy is ultimately released.
Boilers are divided into two types: hot water boilers and steam boilers.

HOT WATER BOILER - A hot water boiler heats water for heating and hot water delivery in a home or business.

STEAM BOILER - A steam boiler produces steam for use in power generation turbines and other industrial heating purposes. Consider the steam powering a turbine to visualize the effect of steam generating utilizing a boiler. The force of the steam passing through the turbine blades rotates the blades and accelerates the turbine. The turbine is extremely efficient since steam holds a large quantity of energy.

TYPES OF BOILER

Boilers come in a variety of shapes and sizes, and they can be used for a variety of purposes. We'll take a look at a few of them.

1. FIRE-TUBE BOILER - A fire tube boiler circulates hot gases via tubes submerged in water. A furnace, a water tank, and a smoke stack are typical components of this type of boiler. The heat from the furnace is carried by tubes that pass through the water tank. The heat and gases produced by the heating effect are advanced by the smoke stack, ensuring that the pressure does not rise above the desired level. Inside the furnace, the fuel is burned. The heat from the furnace is then transferred to the water in the tank via the tubes. When it's heated, the steam that's produced is released.Once it is heated, steam generated is moved along downstream.

Fire-tube boiler can be the cheapest type of boiler produced. They're built in a straightforward manner. Due to the thickness of the outer shell housing the water, they are normally limited for low and medium pressure applications.



2. WATER-TUBE BOILER - Water travels through tubes surrounded by hot combustible gases in a water tube boiler. The boiler's design is remarkably similar to that of a fire-tube boiler. Instead of heating fire tubes, the furnace heats water in a tank. The fuel source is burned in the furnace, causing the water tubes inside to heat up, in the same way that the fuel source is burned in the furnace. When the water is boiled again, steam is produced and moves downstream.
A water-tube boiler is more efficient in terms of heat transfer than a fire-tube boiler, but they are more difficult to build. The water's quality can be a limiting factor. To function properly, the water may need to be filtered.



3. GAS-FIRED BOILER - A gas-fired boiler produces carbon dioxide and steam by burning a carbon-based fuel with oxygen. A valve linked to the boiler opens during operation, allowing gases to enter the combustion chamber. To burn the gas, an ignition system within the combustion chamber will ignite (fuel). The heat is subsequently transferred to the water flowing via the heat exchanger. The most common types of gas used in gas fired boilers are propane and natural gas. Oil-fired boilers, on the other hand, run on gasoline or a petroleum-based fluid.



The process of burning a fuel source is known as combustion. A fuel source, heat, and an oxidizing agent are all required to start a reaction.

Boilers can be designed to burn a specific fuel utilizing a variety of technologies, but the heat source, also known as the fuel, is the most important factor to consider. One of the most crucial aspects of a boiler is the fuel. It's what generates heat within the boiler by burning.

SOURCES OF BOILER FUEL

1. Coal is a common source of energy. Coal is often ground to a fine powder in industrial boiler applications. It completely burns.

2. Either a resistance heating coil or an electrode unit can be employed as a heat source with electricity. It is typically utilized in modest industrial or home applications.

To work properly, electrode-type applications necessitate extremely high water quality and conductivity. Electrode-type application necessitates regular maintenance. To avoid arching between the electrodes, the insulators must be cleaned.

APPLICATIONS OF BOILERS 

Boilers can be used for a wide range of purposes.

They're used in the food business, for starters. As food is processed, it must be heated or boiled at different stages.

2. The brewing of beer is another intriguing application of a boiler. The malt must be combined with water throughout the brewing process. This is referred to as mashing. Before the yeast is added to start the fermentation, the mash is cooked with steam for many hours.




A fuel source is required to generate heat. The presence of a fuel source, heat, and an oxidizing agent permits reaction to occur. This maintains the heat source. Steam is produced at extremely high pressure by heating water tubes using fire-tubes to heat the tank. This produces a huge quantity of energy.



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